Phospholipase D (PLD) is a potential therapeutic target against cancer. However, the contribution of PLD inhibition to the antitumor response remains unknown. We developed a potent and selective PLD1 inhibitor based on computer-aided drug design. The inhibitor enhanced apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells but not in normal colonic cells, and in vitro cardiotoxicity was not observed. The inhibitor downregulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and reduced the migration, invasion, and self-renewal capacity of CRC cells. In cancer, therapeutic engagement of immunogenic cell death (ICD) leads to more effective responses by eliciting the antitumor immunity of T cells. The CRC cells treated with the inhibitor showed hallmarks of ICD, including downregulation of “do not eat-me” signals (CD24, CD47, programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1]), upregulation of “eat-me” signal (calreticulin), release of high-mobility group Box 1, and ATP. PLD1 inhibition subsequently enhanced the phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages through the surface expression of costimulatory molecules; as a result, the cancer cells were more susceptible to cytotoxic T-cell-mediated killing. Moreover, PLD1 inhibition attenuated colitis-associated CRC and orthotopically injected tumors, probably by controlling multiple pathways, including Wnt signaling, phagocytosis checkpoints, and immune signaling. Furthermore, combination therapy with a PLD1 inhibitor and an anti-PD-L1 antibody further enhanced tumor regression via immune activation in the tumor environment. Collectively, in this study, PLD1 was identified as a critical regulator of the tumor microenvironment in colorectal cancer, suggesting the potential of PLD1 inhibitors for cancer immunotherapy based on ICD and immune activation. PLD1 inhibitors may act as promising immune modulators in antitumor treatment via ICD.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Experimental and Molecular Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Sept|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (NRF-2018R1A2B3002179) and by the Yonsei University Research Fund of 2019-22-0193. We would like to thank Editage ( www.editage.co.kr ) for English language editing.
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (NRF-2018R1A2B3002179) and the Yonsei University Research Fund of 2019-22-0193.
© 2022, The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry