Objective Intimal hyperplasia is a major cause of restenosis after arterial bypass and balloon angioplasty. Induction of rapid re-endothelialization has been proposed to reduce intimal hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on intimal hyperplasia. Methods Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed 1% cholesterol diets from 1 week before balloon angioplasty to the day of harvest. After dissection of rabbit carotid arteries, balloon angioplasty was performed with a 2F Fogarty embolectomy catheter. The injured carotid artery was coated with a mixture of 7 × 106 human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs) and fibrin matrix. The carotid arteries were harvested 2, 4, and 8 weeks thereafter, and immunofluorescent staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. Results The intima/media ratio was significantly reduced in the group treated with HUC-MSCs compared with the nontreated group (Student t-tests,∗P <.05). The area of re-endothelialization was significantly higher (Student t-tests,∗P <.05) in the group treated with HUC-MSCs than in the nontreated group. Expression of angiogenic genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, kinase insert domain receptor 1, angiopoietin 1, and angio-associated migratory cell protein was increased (analysis of variance, P <.05) in the group treated with HUC-MSCs relative to the nontreated group. Conclusions Our study showed that HUC-MSCs reduce the formation of intimal hyperplasia through rapid re-endothelialization. This result might be applied to development of stem cell-coated stents as well as to development of a stem cell-containing sheet coat for inhibition of intimal hyperplasia after angioplasty or surgery.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine