The work function of graphene is known to be tuned by gate voltage on SiO2 substrates. For a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), chemical species such as oxygen and water molecules induce electrostatic interactions between the graphene and SiO2 substrate, and consequently, the conductance of graphene can be shifted with respect to the applied field effect. Furthermore, these shifts cause an inevitable hysteresis in the I–V characteristics of the graphene device, which degrades its performance. Herein, we study the work-function of graphene devices on SiO2 substrates with chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene using Kelvin probe force microscopy and report the gate voltage-dependent work-function hysteresis, which is analogous to the hysteresis in the electronic transport of graphene FETs. The degree of work-function hysteresis is inhomogeneous depending on the positions on the graphene, and it originates from the inhomogeneous distribution of the chemical species such as H2O and O2 molecules at the interface of a graphene/SiO2 substrate. This inhomogeneity of chemical species seems to be moderated by the gate voltage sweeping during the gate-voltage-dependent work-function measurements. The proposed study provides an advanced understanding of hysteresis phenomena in graphene devices and the guidance for developing controlled graphene devices with minimal influence from ambient conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
SHK was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (Grant No. 2020R1A2C1005299 ). YJS was supported by the Basic Science Research Program (Grant No. 2015M3A7B4050455 ), by Institute for Basic Science (Grant No. IBS-R011-D1 ) through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) in South Korea and the SRC Center for Topological Matter (Grant No. 2018R1A5A6075964 ) through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) in South Korea, by Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program (Grant No. 10085617 ) funded by the Ministry of Trade Industry & Energy (MOTIE) in South Korea.
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)