Objectives: To assess the clinical utility and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy in children by analyzing 6 consecutive cases performed by a single surgeon. Methods: Since March 2009, we have been performing LESS nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy in children. The indications have been recurrent pyelonephritis related to vesicoureteral reflux with an atrophic kidney and continuous urinary incontinence related to an ectopic ureter. A homemade port was placed through an umbilical incision, and the laparoscopic transperitoneal nephrectomy procedures were performed using various combinations of standard and articulating laparoscopic instruments. The patients undergoing a LESS procedure were evaluated prospectively, and the data were collected during and after surgery. Results: A total of 6 procedures, including nephrectomy (4 cases) and nephroureterectomy (2 cases), were completed without intraoperative or postoperative complications. The median operation time was 112 minutes (range 90-148), and the median blood loss was 0 mL (range 0-50). All patients received only oral ibuprofen syrup for pain control and were discharged on postoperative day 2. As the surgeon gained experience, the length of the umbilical incision was decreased from 2.0 to 1.0 cm. Conclusions: Pediatric LESS nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy can be performed safely with a very small incision. LESS performed by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon has the potential to become an alternative first-line therapy for ablative procedures in children.
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