InxGa1-xas nanowires on silicon

One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics

Jae Cheol Shin, Kyou Hyun Kim, Ki Jun Yu, Hefei Hu, Leijun Yin, Cun Zheng Ning, John A. Rogers, Jian Min Zuo, Xiuling Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

105 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report on the one-dimensional (1D) heteroepitaxial growth of In xGa1-xAs (x = 0.2-1) nanowires (NWs) on silicon (Si) substrates over almost the entire composition range using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without catalysts or masks. The epitaxial growth takes place spontaneously producing uniform, nontapered, high aspect ratio NW arrays with a density exceeding 1 ×108/cm2. NW diameter (∼30-250 nm) is inversely proportional to the lattice mismatch between InxGa1-xAs and Si (∼4-11%), and can be further tuned by MOCVD growth condition. Remarkably, no dislocations have been found in all composition InxGa1-xAs NWs, even though massive stacking faults and twin planes are present. Indium rich NWs show more zinc-blende and Ga-rich NWs exhibit dominantly wurtzite polytype, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and photoluminescence spectra. Solar cells fabricated using an n-type In0.3Ga0.7As NW array on a p-type Si(111) substrate with a ∼2.2% area coverage, operates at an open circuit voltage, Voc, and a short circuit current density, J sc, of 0.37 V and 12.9 mA/cm2, respectively. This work represents the first systematic report on direct 1D heteroepitaxy of ternary InxGa1-xAs NWs on silicon substrate in a wide composition/bandgap range that can be used for wafer-scale monolithic heterogeneous integration for high performance photovoltaics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4831-4838
Number of pages8
JournalNano Letters
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov 9

Fingerprint

Silicon
Epitaxial growth
epitaxy
Nanowires
Energy gap
nanowires
engineering
silicon
Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition
metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
Substrates
Chemical analysis
Indium
Lattice mismatch
Stacking faults
Open circuit voltage
short circuit currents
high aspect ratio
open circuit voltage
crystal defects

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Shin, Jae Cheol ; Kim, Kyou Hyun ; Yu, Ki Jun ; Hu, Hefei ; Yin, Leijun ; Ning, Cun Zheng ; Rogers, John A. ; Zuo, Jian Min ; Li, Xiuling. / InxGa1-xas nanowires on silicon : One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics. In: Nano Letters. 2011 ; Vol. 11, No. 11. pp. 4831-4838.
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title = "InxGa1-xas nanowires on silicon: One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics",
abstract = "We report on the one-dimensional (1D) heteroepitaxial growth of In xGa1-xAs (x = 0.2-1) nanowires (NWs) on silicon (Si) substrates over almost the entire composition range using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without catalysts or masks. The epitaxial growth takes place spontaneously producing uniform, nontapered, high aspect ratio NW arrays with a density exceeding 1 ×108/cm2. NW diameter (∼30-250 nm) is inversely proportional to the lattice mismatch between InxGa1-xAs and Si (∼4-11{\%}), and can be further tuned by MOCVD growth condition. Remarkably, no dislocations have been found in all composition InxGa1-xAs NWs, even though massive stacking faults and twin planes are present. Indium rich NWs show more zinc-blende and Ga-rich NWs exhibit dominantly wurtzite polytype, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and photoluminescence spectra. Solar cells fabricated using an n-type In0.3Ga0.7As NW array on a p-type Si(111) substrate with a ∼2.2{\%} area coverage, operates at an open circuit voltage, Voc, and a short circuit current density, J sc, of 0.37 V and 12.9 mA/cm2, respectively. This work represents the first systematic report on direct 1D heteroepitaxy of ternary InxGa1-xAs NWs on silicon substrate in a wide composition/bandgap range that can be used for wafer-scale monolithic heterogeneous integration for high performance photovoltaics.",
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Shin, JC, Kim, KH, Yu, KJ, Hu, H, Yin, L, Ning, CZ, Rogers, JA, Zuo, JM & Li, X 2011, 'InxGa1-xas nanowires on silicon: One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics', Nano Letters, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 4831-4838. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl202676b

InxGa1-xas nanowires on silicon : One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics. / Shin, Jae Cheol; Kim, Kyou Hyun; Yu, Ki Jun; Hu, Hefei; Yin, Leijun; Ning, Cun Zheng; Rogers, John A.; Zuo, Jian Min; Li, Xiuling.

In: Nano Letters, Vol. 11, No. 11, 09.11.2011, p. 4831-4838.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - InxGa1-xas nanowires on silicon

T2 - One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics

AU - Shin, Jae Cheol

AU - Kim, Kyou Hyun

AU - Yu, Ki Jun

AU - Hu, Hefei

AU - Yin, Leijun

AU - Ning, Cun Zheng

AU - Rogers, John A.

AU - Zuo, Jian Min

AU - Li, Xiuling

PY - 2011/11/9

Y1 - 2011/11/9

N2 - We report on the one-dimensional (1D) heteroepitaxial growth of In xGa1-xAs (x = 0.2-1) nanowires (NWs) on silicon (Si) substrates over almost the entire composition range using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without catalysts or masks. The epitaxial growth takes place spontaneously producing uniform, nontapered, high aspect ratio NW arrays with a density exceeding 1 ×108/cm2. NW diameter (∼30-250 nm) is inversely proportional to the lattice mismatch between InxGa1-xAs and Si (∼4-11%), and can be further tuned by MOCVD growth condition. Remarkably, no dislocations have been found in all composition InxGa1-xAs NWs, even though massive stacking faults and twin planes are present. Indium rich NWs show more zinc-blende and Ga-rich NWs exhibit dominantly wurtzite polytype, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and photoluminescence spectra. Solar cells fabricated using an n-type In0.3Ga0.7As NW array on a p-type Si(111) substrate with a ∼2.2% area coverage, operates at an open circuit voltage, Voc, and a short circuit current density, J sc, of 0.37 V and 12.9 mA/cm2, respectively. This work represents the first systematic report on direct 1D heteroepitaxy of ternary InxGa1-xAs NWs on silicon substrate in a wide composition/bandgap range that can be used for wafer-scale monolithic heterogeneous integration for high performance photovoltaics.

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