Insulin-related dietary indices predict 24-hour Urinary C-peptide in Adult Men

Dong Hoon Lee, Edward L. Giovannucci, Fred K. Tabung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dietary insulin index directly estimates the postprandial insulin secretion potential of foods, whereas empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) assesses insulinemic potential of usual diets based on fasting plasma C-peptide, and is primarily reflective of insulin resistance. It is unknown whether these insulin-related indices are predictive of an integrated measure of insulin secretion. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis that included 293 non-diabetic men with 24-hour urinary C-peptide data from the Men's Lifestyle Validation Study. EDIH, dietary insulin index, and dietary insulin load were calculated using validated food frequency questionnaires. We conducted multivariable-adjusted linear regression to estimate relative and absolute concentrations of 24-hour urinary C-peptide. In multivariable-adjusted models, we found a significant positive association between all three insulin-related dietary indices and 24-hour urinary C-peptide (P<0.05). Relative concentrations of 24-hour urinary C-peptide per 1-standard deviation increase in insulin-related dietary indices were: 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02, 1.23) for EDIH, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07, 1.29) for dietary insulin index and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06, 1.27) for dietary insulin load. When we further adjusted for body mass index (BMI), the association was attenuated for EDIH, to 1.07 (95% CI, 0.98, 1.16), and remained unchanged for dietary insulin index and dietary insulin load. In conclusion, EDIH, dietary insulin index, and dietary insulin load were predictive of integrated insulin secretion assessed by 24-hour urinary C-peptide. Findings after adjustment for BMI appear to confirm the relation of EDIH to insulin resistance and dietary insulin index/load to insulin secretion; the respective constructs of the two dietary indices.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Authors 2020.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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