Integrated model for assessing the cost and CO 2 emission (IMACC) for sustainable structural design in ready-mix concrete

Taehoon Hong, Changyoon Ji, Hyoseon Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)


Cost has traditionally been considered the most important factor in the decision-making process. Recently, along with the consistent interest in environmental problems, environmental impact has also become a key factor. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a method that simultaneously reflects the cost and environmental impact in the decision-making process. This study proposed an integrated model for assessing the cost and CO 2 emission (IMACC) at the same time. IMACC is a model that assesses the cost and CO 2 emission of the various structural-design alternatives proposed in the structural-design process. To develop the IMACC, a standard on assessing the cost and CO 2 emission generated in the construction stage was proposed, along with the CO 2 emission factors in the structural materials, based on such materials' strengths. Moreover, using the economic and environmental scores that signify the cost and CO 2 emission reduction ratios, respectively, a method of selecting the best design alternative was proposed. To verify the applicability of IMACC, practical application was carried out. Structural designs were assessed, each of which used 21, 24, 27, and 30 MPa ready-mix concrete (RMC). The use of IMACC makes it easy to verify what the best design is. Results show the one that used 27 MPa RMC was the best design. Therefore, the proposed IMACC can be used as a tool for supporting the decision-making process in selecting the best design alternative.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul 30


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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