This article considers new and existing technologies for water reuse networks for water and wastewater minimization. For the systematic design of water reuse networks, the theory of the water pinch methodology and the mathematical optimization are described, which are proved to be effective in identifying water reuse opportunities. As alternative solutions, evolutionary solutions and stochastic design approaches to water system design are also illustrated. And the project work flow and an example in a real plant are examined. Finally, as development is in the forefront in process industries, this paper will also explore some research challenges encountered in this field such as simultaneous water and energy minimization, energy-pinch design, and eco-industrial parks (EIP).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)