An integrity-based path planning strategy for autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) navigation in urban environments is developed. The vehicle is assumed to navigate by utilizing cellular long-term evolution (LTE) signals in addition to Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Given a desired destination, an optimal path is calculated, which minimizes a cost function that considers both the horizontal protection level (HPL) and travel distance. The constraints are that (i) the ratio of nodes with faulty signals to the total nodes be lower than a maximum allowable ratio and (ii) the HPLs along each candidate path be lower than the horizontal alert limit (HAL). To predict the faults and HPL before the vehicle is driven, GPS and LTE pseudoranges along the candidate paths are generated utilizing a commercial ray-tracing software and three-dimensional (3D) terrain and building maps. Simulated pseudoranges inform the path planning algorithm about potential biases due to reflections from buildings in urban environments. Simulation results are presented showing that the optimal path produced by the proposed path planning strategy has the minimum average HPL among the candidate paths.
|Title of host publication||Proceedings of the 33rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GNSS+ 2020|
|Publisher||Institute of Navigation|
|Number of pages||11|
|ISBN (Electronic)||0936406267, 9780936406268|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
|Event||33rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GNSS+ 2020 - Virtual, Online|
Duration: 2020 Sep 22 → 2020 Sep 25
|Name||Proceedings of the 33rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GNSS+ 2020|
|Conference||33rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GNSS+ 2020|
|Period||20/9/22 → 20/9/25|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank Mahdi Maaref for insightful discussions. This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT), Korea, under the High-Potential Individuals Global Training Program (2020-0-01531) supervised by the Institute for Information & Communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP). This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant 1929965.
Copyright © 2020 by H. Lee, J. Seo, and Z. Kassas
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science Applications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering