Intellectual Functioning of Pediatric Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from the KNOW-Ped CKD

Na Ri Kang, Yo Han Ahn, Eujin Park, Keum Hwa Lee, Hee Sun Baek, Seong Heon Kim, Heeyeon Cho, Min Hyun Cho, Jae Il Shin, Joo Hoon Lee, Hae Il Cheong, Hee Gyung Kang, Young Seo Park, Il Soo Ha, Duk Soo Moon, Kyoung Hee Han

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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. Methods: Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6-16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). Results: The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. Conclusion: On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Korean medical science
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the research program funded by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (2011E3300300, 2012E3301100, 2013E3301600, 2013E3301601, 2013E3301602, 2016E3300200, 2016E3300201, 2016E3300202, 2019E320100, 2019E320101, and 2019E320102).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021. The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


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