We evaluated the change in the chemical structure between dielectrics (AlOx and HfOx) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and oxidized black phosphorus (BP), as a function of air exposure time. Chemical and structural analyses of the oxidized phosphorus species (PxOy) were performed using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, first-principles density functional theory calculations, and the electrical characteristics of field-effect transistors (FETs). Based on the combined experiments and theoretical investigations, we clearly show that oxidized phosphorus species (PxOy, until exposed for 24 h) are significantly decreased (self-reduction) during the ALD of AlOx. In particular, the field effect characteristics of a FET device based on Al2O3/AlOx/oxidized BP improved significantly with enhanced electrical properties, a mobility of ∼253 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on-off ratio of ∼105, compared to those of HfO2/HfOx/oxidized BP with a mobility of ∼97 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on-off ratio of ∼103-104. These distinct differences result from a significantly decreased interface trap density (Dit ∼ 1011 cm-2 eV-1) and subthreshold gate swing (SS ∼ 270 mV dec-1) in the BP device caused by the formation of stable energy states at the AlOx/oxidized BP interface, even with BP oxidized by air exposure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (No. 2018R1A2A1A05023214 and No. 2017R1A5A1014862 for SRC program vdWMRC center) and the Academy-Industry joint-research program between Yonsei University and Samsung Electronics.
© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)