Interfacial chemical reaction and multiple gap state formation on three layer cathode in organic light-emitting diode: Ca/BaF2/Alq3

Tae Gun Kim, Hyunbok Lee, Yeonjin Yi, Seung Mi Lee, Jeong Won Kim

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A three layer cathode is a promising stack structure for long lifetime and high efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes. The interfacial chemical reactions and their effects on electronic structures for alkaline-earth metal (Ca, Ba)/Alq3 [tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum] and Ca/BaF2/Alq3 are investigated using in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as molecular model calculation. The BaF2 interlayer initially prevents direct contact between Alq3 and the reactive Ca metal, but it is dissociated into Ba and CaF2 by the addition of Ca. As the Ca thickness increases, the Ca penetrates the interlayer to directly participate in the reaction with the underlying Alq3. This series of chemical reactions takes place irrespective of the BaF2 buffer layer thickness as long as the Ca overlayer thickness is sufficient. The interface reaction between the alkaline-earth metal and Alq3 generates two energetically separated gap states in a sequential manner. This phenomenon is explained by step-by-step charge transfer from the alkaline-earth metal to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital states of Alq3, forming new occupied states below the Fermi level.

Original languageEnglish
Article number025502
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jul 14


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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