Intermittent, three-times-weekly oral antibiotic therapy is recommended for the initial treatment of noncavitary nodular bronchiectatic (NB) Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. However, intermittent therapy is not recommended for patients who have been previously treated. We evaluated 53 patients with recurrent noncavitary NB MAC lung disease who underwent antibiotic treatment for ≥12 months with daily therapy (n = 26) or intermittent therapy (n = 27) between January 2008 and December 2015. Baseline characteristics were comparable between daily therapy and intermittent therapy groups. Sputum culture conversion rates did not differ between daily therapy (21/26, 81%) and intermittent therapy (22/27, 82%) groups. Compared to the etiologic organism at the time of previous treatment, recurrent MAC lung disease was caused by the same MAC species in 38 patients (72%) and by a different MAC species in 15 patients (28%). Genotype analysis in patients with sequenced paired isolates revealed that 86% (12/14) of cases with same species recurrence were due to reinfection with a new MAC genotype. In conclusion, most recurrent noncavitary NB MAC lung disease cases were caused by reinfection rather than relapse. Intermittent antibiotic therapy is a reasonable treatment strategy for recurrent noncavitary NB MAC lung disease.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases