International Patterns in Principal Preparation: Commonalities and Variations in Pre-service Programmes

Allan Walker, Darren Bryant, Moosung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This article illuminates major features of high-quality leadership programmes across different education systems. We do so by focusing on capturing commonalities and variations in high-quality pre-service programmes from five differing societies, all of which are high-performing education systems. To this end, we first delineate key profiles of each programme. Based on that, we discuss commonalities and variations in leadership programmes in terms of framework, content and operational features. Finally, we flesh out important implications for policy and practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-434
Number of pages30
JournalEducational Management Administration and Leadership
Volume41
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Ontario Melbourne New York Singapore Hong Kong Purpose Purpose Develop leaders for school improvement grounded in their context. Develop transformative leaders through action research. Prepare leaders with focus on disadvant-aged communities. Produce and create the knowledge to school leaders for the 21st century. Prepare leaders to lead schools over the next decade. Framework Theoretical underpinnings Leithwood et al. (2006 ). Successful School Leadership (NCSL) Sergiovanni’s (1984, 2005) Forces of Leadership Derived from various standards Social constructive-ism for knowledge creation Six core areas of leadership Systemic coherence Centrally defined Widely spread Centrally defined Widely spread Centrally defined Widely spread Centrally defined Narrowly spread Centrally defined Widely spread Curriculum coherence Explicitly articulated Sequential, hierarchical Explicitly articulated Sequential, hierarchical Explicitly articulated Sequential, hierarchical Implicitly embedded Non-sequential hierarchical Explicitly articulated Sequential, hierarchical Degree of structure Formally structured Formally structured Mixed Mixed Formally structured Content Common Areas Theory and Research, Teaching and Learning, Society and Community, Personal Awareness (or Personal Leadership), Organizations, Leading and Managing, Policy and Politics, Law and Ethics, Economics and Finances Key Foci Inclusion Diversity Ethical responsibility Academic excellence Cutting edge Inner-growth Well being Access to world-class academics Instructional Leadership Disadvantaged communities Close achievement gap Knowledge creation and innovation Social constructivist process-as-content curriculum Networking Self-analysis Academic-practitioner nexus Delivery Learning components Courses Practicum Project Journal Courses Project Journal Courses Project Courses Project Overseas visit Journal Portfolio Coursework Project Needs Analysis Portfolio Mode Face-to-face On-line School-based Face-to-face On-line School-based Face-to-face School-based Face-to-face On-line School-based Face-to-face School-based Practicum 60 hours Own school Tasks negotiated Duration of programme Own school Tasks negotiated 10 months School residency Tasks negotiated 6 months School attachment None Project Action Research Project Implement school improvement Action Research Project Implement innovation School-based project Innovative school project Implement innovation Action learning project Practitioner role In-school mentor External supporter Academic mentor Professional mentor In-school mentor In-school mentor External supporter In-school mentor External supporter Assessor Portfolio assessor Co-instructor Practitioner activity Provide formative feedback on project implementation Guide proposal development and assesses final product Research and scholarly development Assesses all assignments Guide professional development according to framework Ensure congruence of project with school priorities Mentors’ residency activities Guide professional development according to nine leadership dimensions Mentor opportunities from principals at assigned schools Support professional development of APs Act as trainers, mentors and facilitators in the designated programme Share experience with participants Assessment of Participants Summative Mastery-based Re-doable Summative Mastery-based Summative Mastery-based Summative Mastery-based Summative Mastery-based Re-doable Operational Features Target groups Aspiring/ potential principals Aspiring/ potential principals Aspiring/ potential principals Aspiring/ potential principals Aspiring/ potential principals Selection Unlimited places Masters degree or equivalent Qualified in 3 of 4 year-level ranges District approval Unlimited places Members of state school system 5 years experience District approval Limited places 3 years experience Highly selective admission process (23% selection rate) Limited places Vice-principals and MOE officers Selected by Ministry of Education Unlimited places Open Time Coursework: 10 months (approx) part time 250 hours Practicum: 10 weeks minimum 60 hours minimum 2 years part-time 240 hours x 4 courses 7 full day “intensives” per course 14 months full time 6 months full time 2 years part-time Formal Outcome Local License Required Credit toward degree No License Not required Full Degree Local License Required Non-degree National License Required Non-degree National License Required Credit toward degree Providers Multiple providers (Universities and professional associations) Centrally regulated Multiple providers (Universities) Centrally regulated Multiple providers (Universities and professional associations) Centrally regulated Single provider (University) Centrally regulated Multiple providers (Universities only) Centrally accredited Partnership Tripartite partnership (Academic, bureaucratic, practitioner) Tripartite partnership (Academic, bureaucratic, practitioner) Tripartite partnership (Academic, bureaucratic, practitioner) Tripartite partnership (Academic, bureaucratic, practitioner) Tripartite partnership (Academic, bureaucratic, practitioner) Teachers/Facilitators Practitioners only Academics and Practitioners Practitioners only Academics and practitioners Academics and practitioners Funding Self-funded Not available State funded Government funded Self-funded Learning Groupings Cohort model Cohort model Cohort model (team-based) Cohort model (team-based) Broken cohort model Evaluation and Development Intermittently redeveloped Generative evaluative processes Provide evidence External Intermittently redeveloped Provide evidence External Intermittently redeveloped Provide evidence Provide evidence External Static Formal Venues Localised Centralised Centralised Centralised Localised Summary Context embedded (strong) Reflective inquiry (strong) Skills-orientation (moderate) Theory-driven (limited) Task-orientation (strong) Context embedded (strong) Reflective inquiry (strong) Skills-orientation (limited) Theory-driven (strong) Task-orientation (strong) Research-led (strong) Context embedded (strong) Reflective inquiry (strong) Skills-orientation (limited) Theory-driven (limited) Task-orientation (Strong) Context embedded (strong) Reflective inquiry (strong) Skills-orientation (limited) Theory-driven (strong) Research-led (limited) Task-orientation (Strong) Context embedded (strong) Reflective inquiry (strong) Skills-orientation (moderate) Task-orientation (strong) Theory-driven (limited)

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Strategy and Management

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