Postoperative pain after breast reconstruction surgery with the latissimus dorsi flap is a common occurrence. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection during surgery is effective in reducing postoperative pain. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate locations for BoNT injection. A modified Sihler’s method was performed on the latissimus dorsi muscles in 16 specimens. Intramuscular nerve arborization was noted under the landmark of the medial side surgical neck of the humerus to the line crossing the spinous process of T5 and the middle of the iliac crest. The latissimus dorsi muscles were divided into medial, middle, and lateral segments with 10 transverse divisions to give 10 sections (each 10%). Intramuscular nerve arborization of the latissimus dorsi muscle was the largest from the medial and lateral part of the muscle ranging from 40 to 60%, middle part from 30 to 60% and medial, middle and lateral part from 70 to 90%. The nerve entry points were at the medial and lateral part with 20–40% regarding the medial side of surgical neck of the humerus to the line crossing spinous process of T5 to the middle of iliac crest. These outcomes propose that an injection of BoNT into the latissimus dorsi muscles should be administered into specific zones.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2020R1A2B5B0100223811).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis