Influenza vaccines aimed at inducing antibody (Ab) responses against viral surface hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) provide sterile immunity to infection with the same subtypes. Vaccines targeting viral conserved determinants shared by the influenza A viruses (IAV) offer heterosubtypic immunity (HSI), a broad protection against different subtypes. We proposed that vaccines targeting both HA and the conserved ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) would provide protection against infection with the same subtype and also HSI against other subtypes. We report here that single intranasal immunization with a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vector encoding both HA of H5 virus and M2e (rAdH5/M2e) induced significant HA- and M2especific Ab responses, along with protection against heterosubtypic challenge in mice. The protection is superior compared to that induced by rAd vector encoding either HA (rAdH5), or M2e (rAdM2e). While protection against homotypic H5 virus is primarily mediated by virus-neutralizing Abs, the cross-protection is associated with Abs directed to conserved stalk HA and M2e that seem to have an additive effect. Consistently, adoptive transfer of antisera induced by rAdH5/M2e provided the best protection against heterosubtypic challenge compared to that provided by antisera derived from mice immunized with rAdH5 or rAdM2e. These results support the development of rAd-vectored vaccines encoding both H5 and M2e as universal vaccines against different IAV subtypes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported in part by grants from the Transgovernmental Enterprise for Pandemic Influenza in Korea (A103001), the National Research Foundation (MDNRF01251-050), and the Vaccine Translational Research Center (B.L.S. and Y.-H.B.; HI13C0826) of the Republic of Korea. The International Vaccine Institute is supported in part by grants from the governments of the Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Sweden (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency), and Germany (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science