CO2-driven cold-water geysers periodically ejecting cold water are rare. Although coalescence and expansion of ascending CO2 bubbles can explain the eruption process, the triggering conditions and eruption cycle remain unclear. To clarify the triggering conditions, hydrostatic pressure in the well was decreased by pumping to induce eruptions. All four pumping tests successfully induced eruptions by decreasing the pressure of ∼104 Pa. In the absence of artificial perturbations, similar reductions in pressure were observed during the intervals between two consecutive eruptions (IBEs). During IBE, the atmospheric pressure (Pair) and temperature (Tair) controlled the generation of the CO2 bubbles which directly induced the pressure reduction in the well. Especially under the persistent low Pair and high Tair, the length of IBE showed a minimum value of 3.90 hr during field observations. We suggest that the atmospheric perturbations are the causes of the changes in geyser periodicity, given consistent geological and hydraulic conditions.
|Journal||Geophysical Research Letters|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Jul 16|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education [project number: 2016R1D1A1B01008715]. This research was also supported by the Subsurface Environmental Management project through the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute funded by the Ministry of Environment [project number: 2018002440003], and by Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) [project number: 20212010200010]. This research was also supported by the Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT. The authors would like to thank Steven E. Ingebritsen, Atsuko Namiki, and Guanhong Feng for their insightful comments and suggestions.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)