Investigating the influence of Taekwondo body protectors size on shock absorption

Hee Seong Jeong, Sae Yong Lee, Hyung Jun Noh, David Michael O'Sullivan, Young Rim Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare and analyze the difference of impact force attenuation according to size and impact location on a Taekwondo body protector. METHODS: Body protectors sized 1 to 5, were impact tested by equipment based on the specifications in the European standard manual (EN 13277-1, 3). The impactor release heights were set to match impact energies of 3 and 15 J. The impactor was made from a 2.5 kg cylindrically cut piece of aluminum. Each body protector was impacted 10 times at the two impact energies and two locations. The differences in performance for each body protector size were compared using a two-way analysis of variance with a significance level of p< 005. The effect sizes were investigated using a partial eta squared value (η2). RESULTS: The significant mean differences between the body protector size and impact area (p< 005) and the average impact time of impact strengths 3 and 15 J were 0.0017 and 0.0012 s, respectively In addition, when an impact strength of 15 J was applied, the maximum resulting impact force exceeded 2000 N for both locations on all sizes. Furthermore, at an impact strength of 3 J size 3 significantly reduced the impact force more than the other sizes; however, size 1 showed the greatest shock absorption at an impact of 15 J. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the shock absorption of body protectors does not increase according to size; i.e., a larger body protector does not reduce the impact load more effectively. To improve safety performance, we recommend a maximum impact force of 2000 N or less for all body protectors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)667-675
Number of pages9
JournalTechnology and Health Care
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was conducted by Taekwondo Research Institute of Kukkiwon with the support of the “2018 Taekwondo Researcher Grant In Aid (GIA) Support Project”. It was conducted in cooperation with the World Taekwondo Anti-Doping and Medical Committee, which is part of the WT Sports Department and the Yonsei Institute of Sports Science and Exercise Medicine, an IOC research center in Korea for preventing injury to and protecting athletes. None of the authors have a relationship with any of the tested brands.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 - IOS Press. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Information Systems
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Health Informatics


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