Iron-deficient anemia is a prevalent disease among humans. We searched for genes regulated by iron deficiency and its regulated mechanism. cDNA microarrays were performed using Hepa1c1c7 cells treated with 100 μM desferrioxamine (DFO), an iron chelator. Early growth response 1 (Egr1) was upregulated with at least 20-fold increase within 4 h and lasted for 24 h, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. This activation was not seen by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC). DFO increased the transcriptional activity of Egr1-luc (−604 to +160) and serum response element (SRE)-luc reporters by 2.7-folds. In addition, cycloheximide lowered DFO-induced Egr1 mRNA levels. The upregulation of Egr1 by DFO was accompanied by sustained ERK signals along with phosphorylation of Elk-1. The ERK inhibitor (PD98059) prevented the DFO-induced Egr1 mRNAs. Overexpression of Elk-1 mutant (pElk-1S383A) decreased Egr1 reporter activity. DFO lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased caspase 3/7 activity and cell death. DFO-induced iron deficiency upregulates Egr1 in part through transcriptional activation via ERK and Elk-1 signals, which may be important in the regulation of cell death in hepatoma cells. Our study demonstrated that iron depletion controlled the expression of Egr1, which might contribute to decisions about cellular fate in response to iron deficiency.
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Acknowledgments This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2013-11-2083).
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism