Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

Bo Yi Yang, Zhengmin (Min) Qian, Michael G. Vaughn, Erik J. Nelson, Shyamali C. Dharmage, Joachim Heinrich, Shao Lin, Wayne R. Lawrence, Huimin Ma, Duo Hong Chen, Li Wen Hu, Xiao Wen Zeng, Shu Li Xu, Chuan Zhang, Guang Hui Dong

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Abstract

Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18–74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM10) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM10). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03–1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33–0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)696-704
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume229
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Prehypertension
Blood pressure
Air Pollution
Air pollution
Health
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Confidence Intervals
Nitrogen Dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide
Ozone
Sulfur dioxide
Odds Ratio
Aerodynamics
Sphygmomanometers
Nitrogen
Monitoring
Regression Analysis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Yang, Bo Yi ; Qian, Zhengmin (Min) ; Vaughn, Michael G. ; Nelson, Erik J. ; Dharmage, Shyamali C. ; Heinrich, Joachim ; Lin, Shao ; Lawrence, Wayne R. ; Ma, Huimin ; Chen, Duo Hong ; Hu, Li Wen ; Zeng, Xiao Wen ; Xu, Shu Li ; Zhang, Chuan ; Dong, Guang Hui. / Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study. In: Environmental Pollution. 2017 ; Vol. 229. pp. 696-704.
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title = "Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study",
abstract = "Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18–74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95{\%} confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM10) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95{\%} CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM10). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95{\%} CI, 1.03–1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95{\%} CI, 0.33–0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension.",
author = "Yang, {Bo Yi} and Qian, {Zhengmin (Min)} and Vaughn, {Michael G.} and Nelson, {Erik J.} and Dharmage, {Shyamali C.} and Joachim Heinrich and Shao Lin and Lawrence, {Wayne R.} and Huimin Ma and Chen, {Duo Hong} and Hu, {Li Wen} and Zeng, {Xiao Wen} and Xu, {Shu Li} and Chuan Zhang and Dong, {Guang Hui}",
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Yang, BY, Qian, ZM, Vaughn, MG, Nelson, EJ, Dharmage, SC, Heinrich, J, Lin, S, Lawrence, WR, Ma, H, Chen, DH, Hu, LW, Zeng, XW, Xu, SL, Zhang, C & Dong, GH 2017, 'Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study', Environmental Pollution, vol. 229, pp. 696-704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.016

Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study. / Yang, Bo Yi; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Heinrich, Joachim; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R.; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo Hong; Hu, Li Wen; Zeng, Xiao Wen; Xu, Shu Li; Zhang, Chuan; Dong, Guang Hui.

In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 229, 01.01.2017, p. 696-704.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

AU - Yang, Bo Yi

AU - Qian, Zhengmin (Min)

AU - Vaughn, Michael G.

AU - Nelson, Erik J.

AU - Dharmage, Shyamali C.

AU - Heinrich, Joachim

AU - Lin, Shao

AU - Lawrence, Wayne R.

AU - Ma, Huimin

AU - Chen, Duo Hong

AU - Hu, Li Wen

AU - Zeng, Xiao Wen

AU - Xu, Shu Li

AU - Zhang, Chuan

AU - Dong, Guang Hui

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18–74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM10) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM10). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03–1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33–0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension.

AB - Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18–74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM10) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM10). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03–1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33–0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension.

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