Induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of breast cancers. We investigated the inhibitory effect of kalopanaxsaponin A (KPS-A) on cell invasion and MMP-9 activation in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. KPS-A inhibited PMA-induced cell proliferation and invasion. PMA-induced cell invasion was blocked in the presence of a primary antibody of MMP-9, and KPS-A suppressed the increased expression and/or secretion of MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Using specific inhibitors, we confirmed that PMA-induced cell invasion and MMP-9 expression is primarily regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. KPS-A decreased PMA-induced transcriptional activation of NF-κB and AP-1 and inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC)δ inhibitor rottlerin caused a marked decrease in PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion and cell invasion, as well as ERK/AP-1 activation, and KPS-A reduced PMA-induced membrane localization of PKCδ. Furthermore, oral administration of KPS-A led to a substantial decrease in tumor volume and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and PKCδ in mice with MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in the presence of 17β-estradiol. These results suggest that KPS-A inhibits PMA-induced invasion by reducing MMP-9 activation, mainly via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and PKCδ/ERK/ AP-1 pathways in MCF-7 cells and blocks tumor growth and MMP-9-mediated invasiveness in mice with breast carcinoma. Therefore, KPS-A may be a promising anti-invasive agent with the advantage of oral dosing.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Korea Research Foundation, Korean Government (KRF-2005-005-J05902); BioGreen 21 Program, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea (20050401-034-695-183-02-00).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research