Multidrug resistance mediated by the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is one of the principal mechanisms by which tumor cells escape the cell death induced by chemotherapeutic agents. In our previous study, we demonstrated that KBH-A42 [N-hydroxy-3-(2-oxo-1-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin- 3-yl)propanamide], a synthetic histone deacetylase inhibitor, effectively inhibited the growth of several human cancer cell lines. In this study, we attempted to determine whether KBH-A42 was also capable of inhibiting the growth of multidrug-resistant cells. Doxorubicin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of P-gpnegative K562 human leukemia cells, but did not show substantial inhibition on the growth of P-gp-positive K562/ADR cells even at 10 μM, the highest concentration of KBHA42 used, which increased the acetylation of histones in these leukemia cells, dose-dependently and effectively inhibited the cell growth, regardless of the presence of P-gp in the cells. KBH-A42 mediated G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, probably as the result of the down-regulation of CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 and the up-regulation of p21WAF1. When the expression of p21WAF1 was ablated by a specific siRNA, the inhibition of cell growth by KBH-A42 was partly reduced in both cell lines. In addition to the cell cycle arrest, KBH-A42 also induced apoptosis in these cells, which was accompanied by the activation of caspases, including caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, partially blocked the cell death induced by KBH-A42. These results indicate that KBH-A42 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the up-regulation of p21WAF1 and caspase activation, respectively, regardless of the presence of P-gp in the leukemia cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research