Specific interactions between viruses and host cells provide essential insights into material science-based strategies to combat emerging viral diseases. pH-triggered viral fusion is ubiquitous to multiple viral families and is important for understanding the viral infection cycle. Inspired by this process, virus detection has been achieved using nanomaterials with host-mimetic membranes, enabling interactions with amphiphilic hemagglutinin fusion peptides of viruses. Most research has been on designing functional nanoparticles with fusogenic capability for virus detection, and there has been little exploitation of the kinetic stability to alter the ability of nanoparticles to interact with viral membranes and improve their sensing performance. In this study, a homogeneous fluorescent assay using self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) with tunable responsiveness to external stimuli is developed for rapid and straightforward detection of an activated influenza A virus. Dissociation of PNPs induced by virus insertion can be readily controlled by varying the fraction of hydrophilic segments in copolymers constituting PNPs, giving rise to fluorescence signals within 30 min and detection of various influenza viruses, including H9N2, CA04(H1N1), H4N6, and H6N8. Therefore, the designs demonstrated in this study propose underlying approaches for utilizing engineered PNPs through modulation of their kinetic stability for direct and sensitive identification of infectious viruses.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
E. K. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (no. 2020R1F1A1066247). S. H. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (no. 2017M3A7B4041798) and by Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute(KEITI) funded by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE)(RE202101004).
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Materials Science(all)