Klotho functions as a tumor suppressor predominantly expressed in renal tubular cells, the origin of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Altered expression and/or activity of growth factor receptor have been implicated in ccRCC development. Although Klotho suppresses a tumor progression through growth factor receptor signaling including insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), the role of Klotho acting on IGF-1R in ccRCC and its clinical relevance remains obscure. Here, we show that Klotho is favorable prognostic factor for ccRCC and exerts tumor suppressive role for ccRCC through inhibiting IGF-1R signaling. Our data shows the following key findings. First, in tumor tissues, the level of Klotho and IGF-1R expression are low or high, respectively, compared to that of adjacent non-neoplastic parenchyma. Second, the Klotho expression is clearly low in higher grade of ccRCC and is closely associated with clinical outcomes in tumor progression. Third, Klotho suppresses IGF-1-stimulated cell proliferation and migration by inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide compelling evidence supporting that Klotho acting on IGF-1R signaling functions as tumor suppressor in ccRCC and suggest that Klotho is a potential carcinostatis substance for ccRCC.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning (NRF-2012R1A1A1004233) and the Ministry of Education (NRF- 2013R1A1A2060764, and NRF-2015R1D1A1A01060454) and a research grant from Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine (2010-7-0310 to S.-K.C).
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