Antimicrobial resistance surveillance is necessary to determine the size of the problem and to guide empirical selection of antimicrobial agents for treating infected patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of susceptibility tests performed by hospitals participating in the Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (KONSAR) program. The rates of oxacillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci, and ampicillin-resistant E. faecium were over 70%. Ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae increased to 68%. Expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae, fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli, and imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa remained at 16% through 27%, depending on the species. The proportions of vancomycin- resistant E. faecium and imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were 18 - 24% and 19-21%, respectively, indicating the seriousness of antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria indicates that more concerted effort is required to conserve the usefulness of precious new antimicrobial agents.
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