Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats

Hyun Joo Lee, Yong ho Lee, Sang Kyu Park, Eun Seok Kang, Hyo Jeong Kim, Young Chul Lee, Cheol Soo Choi, Se Eun Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Kwan Woo Lee, Kyung Sup Kim, Sungkil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ginseng has been reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in experimental and clinical studies; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic effects and putative molecular mechanisms of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng) in animal models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and peripheral insulin-responsive cell lines. Korean red ginseng was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/(kg d) to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats for 40 weeks. Initially, chronic administration of KRG reduced weight gain and visceral fat mass in the early period without altering food intake. The KRG-treated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats showed improved insulin sensitivity and significantly preserved glucose tolerance compared with untreated control animals up to 50 weeks of age, implying that KRG attenuated the development of overt diabetes. KRG promoted fatty acid oxidation by the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in skeletal muscle and cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase-4, and glucose transporter 4 by KRG treatment indicates that activated AMPK also enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose utilization in skeletal muscle. Although these findings suggest that KRG is likely to have beneficial effects on the amelioration of insulin resistance and the prevention of T2DM through the activation of AMPK, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of KRG as a supplementary agent for T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1170-1177
Number of pages8
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume58
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Aug 1

Fingerprint

Inbred OLETF Rats
Panax
Insulin Resistance
Adenosine Monophosphate
Protein Kinases
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1
Skeletal Muscle
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase
Glucose
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Intra-Abdominal Fat
Facilitative Glucose Transport Proteins
Organelle Biogenesis
Electron Transport Complex IV
Cytochromes c
Hyperglycemia
Muscle Cells
Weight Gain
Fatty Acids

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Lee, Hyun Joo ; Lee, Yong ho ; Park, Sang Kyu ; Kang, Eun Seok ; Kim, Hyo Jeong ; Lee, Young Chul ; Choi, Cheol Soo ; Park, Se Eun ; Ahn, Chul Woo ; Cha, Bong Soo ; Lee, Kwan Woo ; Kim, Kyung Sup ; Lim, Sungkil ; Lee, Hyun Chul. / Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats. In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 2009 ; Vol. 58, No. 8. pp. 1170-1177.
@article{32900c6c6e2d41f99a2cb72fb45cb1cc,
title = "Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats",
abstract = "Ginseng has been reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in experimental and clinical studies; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic effects and putative molecular mechanisms of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng) in animal models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and peripheral insulin-responsive cell lines. Korean red ginseng was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/(kg d) to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats for 40 weeks. Initially, chronic administration of KRG reduced weight gain and visceral fat mass in the early period without altering food intake. The KRG-treated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats showed improved insulin sensitivity and significantly preserved glucose tolerance compared with untreated control animals up to 50 weeks of age, implying that KRG attenuated the development of overt diabetes. KRG promoted fatty acid oxidation by the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in skeletal muscle and cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase-4, and glucose transporter 4 by KRG treatment indicates that activated AMPK also enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose utilization in skeletal muscle. Although these findings suggest that KRG is likely to have beneficial effects on the amelioration of insulin resistance and the prevention of T2DM through the activation of AMPK, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of KRG as a supplementary agent for T2DM.",
author = "Lee, {Hyun Joo} and Lee, {Yong ho} and Park, {Sang Kyu} and Kang, {Eun Seok} and Kim, {Hyo Jeong} and Lee, {Young Chul} and Choi, {Cheol Soo} and Park, {Se Eun} and Ahn, {Chul Woo} and Cha, {Bong Soo} and Lee, {Kwan Woo} and Kim, {Kyung Sup} and Sungkil Lim and Lee, {Hyun Chul}",
year = "2009",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.metabol.2009.03.015",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "1170--1177",
journal = "Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental",
issn = "0026-0495",
publisher = "W.B. Saunders Ltd",
number = "8",

}

Lee, HJ, Lee, YH, Park, SK, Kang, ES, Kim, HJ, Lee, YC, Choi, CS, Park, SE, Ahn, CW, Cha, BS, Lee, KW, Kim, KS, Lim, S & Lee, HC 2009, 'Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats', Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1170-1177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2009.03.015

Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats. / Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Yong ho; Park, Sang Kyu; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Lee, Young Chul; Choi, Cheol Soo; Park, Se Eun; Ahn, Chul Woo; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Kwan Woo; Kim, Kyung Sup; Lim, Sungkil; Lee, Hyun Chul.

In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 58, No. 8, 01.08.2009, p. 1170-1177.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats

AU - Lee, Hyun Joo

AU - Lee, Yong ho

AU - Park, Sang Kyu

AU - Kang, Eun Seok

AU - Kim, Hyo Jeong

AU - Lee, Young Chul

AU - Choi, Cheol Soo

AU - Park, Se Eun

AU - Ahn, Chul Woo

AU - Cha, Bong Soo

AU - Lee, Kwan Woo

AU - Kim, Kyung Sup

AU - Lim, Sungkil

AU - Lee, Hyun Chul

PY - 2009/8/1

Y1 - 2009/8/1

N2 - Ginseng has been reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in experimental and clinical studies; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic effects and putative molecular mechanisms of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng) in animal models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and peripheral insulin-responsive cell lines. Korean red ginseng was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/(kg d) to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats for 40 weeks. Initially, chronic administration of KRG reduced weight gain and visceral fat mass in the early period without altering food intake. The KRG-treated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats showed improved insulin sensitivity and significantly preserved glucose tolerance compared with untreated control animals up to 50 weeks of age, implying that KRG attenuated the development of overt diabetes. KRG promoted fatty acid oxidation by the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in skeletal muscle and cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase-4, and glucose transporter 4 by KRG treatment indicates that activated AMPK also enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose utilization in skeletal muscle. Although these findings suggest that KRG is likely to have beneficial effects on the amelioration of insulin resistance and the prevention of T2DM through the activation of AMPK, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of KRG as a supplementary agent for T2DM.

AB - Ginseng has been reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in experimental and clinical studies; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the metabolic effects and putative molecular mechanisms of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng) in animal models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and peripheral insulin-responsive cell lines. Korean red ginseng was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/(kg d) to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats for 40 weeks. Initially, chronic administration of KRG reduced weight gain and visceral fat mass in the early period without altering food intake. The KRG-treated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats showed improved insulin sensitivity and significantly preserved glucose tolerance compared with untreated control animals up to 50 weeks of age, implying that KRG attenuated the development of overt diabetes. KRG promoted fatty acid oxidation by the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in skeletal muscle and cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase-4, and glucose transporter 4 by KRG treatment indicates that activated AMPK also enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose utilization in skeletal muscle. Although these findings suggest that KRG is likely to have beneficial effects on the amelioration of insulin resistance and the prevention of T2DM through the activation of AMPK, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of KRG as a supplementary agent for T2DM.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=67651089992&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=67651089992&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.03.015

DO - 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.03.015

M3 - Article

C2 - 19477471

AN - SCOPUS:67651089992

VL - 58

SP - 1170

EP - 1177

JO - Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

JF - Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

SN - 0026-0495

IS - 8

ER -