The incidence of ureteral strictures has increased worldwide owing to the widespread use of laparoscopic and endourologic procedures. Midureteral strictures can be managed by either an endoscopic approach or surgical reconstruction, including open or minimally invasive (laparoscopic/robotic) techniques. Minimally invasive surgical ureteral reconstruction is gaining in popularity in the management of midureteral strictures. However, only a few studies have been published so far regarding the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic and robotic ureteral reconstruction procedures. Nevertheless, most of the studies have reported at least equivalent outcomes with the open approach. In general, strictures more than 2 cm, injury strictures, and strictures associated either with radiation or with reduced renal function of less than 25% may be managed more appropriately by minimally invasive surgical reconstruction, although the evidence to establish these recommendations is not yet adequate. Defects of 2 to 3 cm in length may be treated with laparoscopic or robot-assisted uretero-ureterostomy, whereas defects of 12 to 15 cm may be managed either via ureteral reimplantation with a Boari flap or via transuretero-ureterostomy in case of low bladder capacity. Cases with more extended defects can be reconstructed with the incorporation of the ileum in ureteral repair.
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