Objective To compare the peri-operative, pathological and oncological outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) robot-assisted nephroureterectomy (LESS-RALNU) with those of multiport robot-asssisted nephroureterectomy (M-RALNU). Patients and Methods A total of 38 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma underwent LESS-RALNU (n=17) or M-RALNU (n=21) by a single surgeon at a tertiary institution. Data were obtained from a prospectively maintained database. Results Patients' demographics and tumour characteristics were similar between the M-RALNU and LESS-RALNU groups. The mean follow-up was 48.4 months for M-RALNU and 30.9 months for LESS-RALNU (P=0). The mean operating time, estimated blood loss and length of hospitalization for M-RALNU and LESS-RALNU were 251 min, 192 mL, 6.5 days and 247 min, 376 mL and 5.4 days, respectively (P>0.05). Overall, there were no significant differences in complication rates, although three patients in the LESS-RALNU group required blood transfusion, whereas no patient in the M-RALNU group did (P=0.081). The proportion of patients with bladder recurrence, local recurrence and distant metastases was similar between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival and overall survival rates between the two groups. Conclusions Although the oncological and peri-operative outcomes of patients who underwent LESS-RALNU compared well with those who underwent M-RALNU and with series of other surgical approaches, LESS-RALNU might result in greater intra-operative blood loss. We suggest careful selection of patient for this technique.
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