For the first time, we describe a novel cost- and time-effective vacuum-free process to fabricate bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs) via layer-by-layer selective stamping transfer of all layers. By controlling the surface properties of polyurethane acrylate (PUA) stamping molds with ultraviolet (UV)-ozone (UVO) exposure, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/ poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS), BHJ layer, and metal cathode were uniformly transferred layer by layer onto each of the bottom layers. Among several interfaces between each layer, we found that the interface between the active layer and metal cathode is a critical factor in obtaining conventional device-like efficiency. To enhance the interfacial connectivity between the BHJ layer and metal cathode and increase electron extraction from the BHJ layer, a titanium oxide (TiOx) interlayer was introduced. Cell performance was optimized by controlling the concentration of TiOx solution. The poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PC60BM) BHJ device fabricated by transferring PEDOT/PSS, TiOx/active layer, and Al cathode showed 2.01% power conversion efficiency. This efficiency is not comparable to those of conventional OPVs, but our approach shows the possibility of fabricating OPVs via the layer-by-layer transfer method for the first time.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces