Learnable Structural Semantic Readout for Graph Classification

Dongha Lee, Su Kim, Seonghyeon Lee, Chanyoung Park, Hwanjo Yu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


With the great success of deep learning in various domains, graph neural networks (GNNs) also become a dominant approach to graph classification. By the help of a global readout operation that simply aggregates all node (or node-cluster) representations, existing GNN classifiers obtain a graph-level representation of an input graph and predict its class label using the representation. However, such global aggregation does not consider the structural information of each node, which results in information loss on the global structure. In this work, we propose structural semantic readout (SSRead) to summarize the node representations at the position-level, which allows to model the position-specific weight parameters for classification as well as to effectively capture the graph semantic relevant to the global structure. Given an input graph, SSRead aims to identify structurally-meaningful positions by using the semantic alignment between its nodes and structural prototypes, which encode the prototypical features of each position. The structural prototypes are optimized to minimize the alignment cost for all training graphs, while the other GNN parameters are trained to predict the class labels. Our experimental results demonstrate that SSRead significantly improves the classification performance and interpretability of GNN classifiers while being compatible with a variety of aggregation functions, GNN architectures, and learning frameworks.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 21st IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2021
EditorsJames Bailey, Pauli Miettinen, Yun Sing Koh, Dacheng Tao, Xindong Wu
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781665423984
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event21st IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2021 - Virtual, Online, New Zealand
Duration: 2021 Dec 72021 Dec 10

Publication series

NameProceedings - IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM
ISSN (Print)1550-4786


Conference21st IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2021
Country/TerritoryNew Zealand
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgement. This work was supported by the NRF grant (No. 2020R1A2B5B03097210, 2021R1C1C1009081), and the IITP grant (No. 2018-0-00584, 2019-0-01906).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)


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