Lithium chloride (LiCl) is an important mood-stabilizing therapeutic agent for bipolar disorders, which has also been shown to inhibit cancer cell metastasis. Investigations of LiCl-induced signaling have focused mainly on extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). However, little is known about the differences in cellular activities resulting from specific signaling via each of these pathways. In this study, we investigated the difference in responses between the Wnt/β-catenin and ERK pathways by LiCl or epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment of osteosarcoma cells. In particular, we analyzed the mechanisms responsible for differences in cell mobility and cell proliferation when pERK or β-catenin is activated. In osteosarcoma cells treated with LiCl or EGF, active β-catenin and p-ERK protein levels were significantly increased compared to those in the control group. However, in wound healing and transwell invasion assays, U2OS and SaOS2 cell migration was significantly reduced by LiCl treatment but increased by EGF treatment. In addition, the proliferation of U2OS cells was reduced by LiCl treatment but increased by EGF treatment. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) with EGF treatment, but pERK was restricted to the perinuclear area with LiCl treatment. These results were confirmed using immunoblot assays after subcellular fractionation. Together, these data suggest that LiCl interferes with the translocation of pERK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Dec 3|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology