The knowledge and understanding of all aspects of liver cancer [this including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA)] have experienced a major improvement in the last decades. New laboratory technologies have identified several molecular abnormalities that, at the very end, should provide an accurate stratification and optimal treatment of patients diagnosed with liver cancer. The seminal discovery of the TP53 hotspot mutation [1,2] was an initial landmark step for the future classification and treatment decision using conventional clinical criteria blended with molecular data. At the same time, the development of ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) has been instrumental for earlier diagnosis, accurate staging and treatment advances. Several treatment options with proven survival benefit if properly applied are now available. Major highlights include: i) acceptance of liver transplantation for HCC if within the Milan criteria , ii) recognition of ablation as a potentially curative option [4,5], iii) proof of benefit of chemoembolization (TACE),  and iv) incorporation of sorafenib as an effective systemic therapy . These options are part of the widely endorsed BCLC staging and treatment model (Fig. 1) [8,9]. This is clinically useful and it will certainly keep evolving to accommodate new scientific evidence. This review summarises the data which are the basis for the current recommendations for clinical practice, while simultaneously exposes the areas where more research is needed to fulfil the still unmet needs (Table 1).
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