Keratin 8 (K8) and keratin 18 (K18) are the intermediate filament proteins whose phosphorylation/transamidation associate with their aggregation in Mallory-Denk bodies found in patients with various liver diseases. However, the functions of other post-translational modifications in keratins related to liver diseases have not been fully elucidated. Here, using a site-specific mutation assay combined with nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified K8-Lys108 and K18-Lys187/426 as acetylation sites, and K8-Arg47 and K18-Arg55 as methylation sites. Keratin mutation (Arg-to-Lys/Ala) at the methylation sites, but not the acetylation sites, led to decreased stability of the keratin protein. We compared keratin acetylation/methylation in liver disease–associated keratin variants. The acetylation of K8 variants increased or decreased to various extents, whereas the methylation of K18-del65-72 and K18-I150V variants increased. Notably, the highly acetylated/methylated K18-I150V variant was less soluble and exhibited unusually prolonged protein stability, which suggests that additional acetylation of highly methylated keratins has a synergistic effect on prolonged stability. Therefore, the different levels of acetylation/methylation of the liver disease–associated variants regulate keratin protein stability. These findings extend our understanding of how disease–associated mutations in keratins modulate keratin acetylation and methylation, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis.—Jang, K.-H., Yoon, H.-N., Lee, J., Yi, H., Park, S.-Y., Lee, S.-Y., Lim, Y., Lee, H.-J., Cho, J.-W., Paik, Y.-K., Hancock, W. S., Ku, N.-O. Liver disease–associated keratin 8 and 18 mutations modulate keratin acetylation and methylation. FASEB J. 33, 9030–9043 (2019). www.fasebj.org.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology Grants 2016R1A2B4012808 and 2018R1D1A1A02086060, the Yonsei University Research Fund 2018-22-0072 (to N.-O.K.), and the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Grant NRF-2016R1A5A1010764 (to J.-W.C.). The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology