BACKGROUND Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is caused by damage to hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells that results in fibrous obliteration of intrahepatic venules and necrosis of hepatocytes. Currently the diagnosis is primarily based on nonspecific clinical features and invasive liver biopsy. Therefore, noninvasive imaging methods are required for the early diagnosis and severity assessment of hepatic SOS. AIM To determine the effectiveness of supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) and dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for diagnosing hepatic SOS using a rabbit model. METHODS Among nine New Zealand white rabbits (3-4 kg, male), three in control group ingested normal saline for 20 d and six in the SOS group ingested 6-thioguanine (5 mg/kg/d) for 20 d. Liver stiffness was measured using SSI on days 0, 3, 10, and 20. On the same days, liver perfusion was evaluated from virtual monochromatic images of 55 keV and iodine map using DECT. Morphologic changes in the liver were assessed using CT. Final pathology scores were compared between the two groups. Liver stiffness and perfusion parameters were compared according to the groups, days, and pathology scores. RESULTS Final pathology scores were significantly higher in the SOS than the control group (median 22 vs 2, P = 0.024). No gross morphologic changes were seen in livers. Liver stiffness, Hounsfield Unit values, and iodine concentrations were higher in the SOS compared to the control group on days 10 and 20 (all, P ≤ 0.007). Compared to day 0, liver stiffness and perfusion parameters were higher on day 20 in the SOS group (all, P ≤ 0.001). Correlation coefficients for liver stiffness (r = 0.635), Hounsfield Unit values (r = 0.587), and iodine concentration (r = 0.611) with final pathology scores were positive without significance (all, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION Liver stiffness and perfusion parameters were significantly increased in the livers of a rabbit SOS model. SSI and DECT might aid in early diagnosis of hepatic SOS.
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