This article presents a new type of stress assessment method for double-layered pressure vessel. Due to its robust strength, a steel-concrete composite pipe is generally installed in poor burial conditions. However, it is difficult to directly define the stress state on pipe sections. For the convenient stress estimation of pipes encased in non-circular concrete, this article suggests a Stress Index (SI), a function of the interface pressure and changed diameter, based on the interface pressure. The ovalization characteristics of plain pipes and of pipes encased by circular and rectangular concrete are examined. The resultant stresses are replaced by the non-dimensional ratio of diameter change; thus, the stress index has the advantage of application for stress assessment irrespective of pipe characteristics.