Gemcitabine is clinically used to treat certain types of cancers, including pancreatic and biliary cancer. We investigated the signal transduction pathways underlying the local antitumor effects of gemcitabine-eluting membranes (GEMs) implanted in pancreatic/biliary tumor-bearing nude mice. Here, we report that GEMs increased the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-CBL protein level, leading to degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in SCK and PANC-1 cells. GEMs decreased the RAS and PI3K protein levels, leading to a reduction in the protein levels of active forms of downstream signaling molecules, including PDK, AKT, and GSK3β. GEM reduced proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating cell cycle arrest proteins, particularly p53 and p21, and downregulating cyclin D1 and cyclin B. Moreover, GEMs reduced the levels of proangiogenic factors, including VEGF, VEGFR2, CD31, and HIF-1α, and inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion by inducing the expression of E-cadherin and reducing that of N-cadherin, snail, and vimentin. We demonstrated that local delivery of gemcitabine using GEM implants inhibited tumor cell growth by promoting c-CBL-mediated degradation of EGFR and inhibiting the proliferation, angiogenesis, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of pancreatic/biliary tumors. Use of gemcitabine-eluting stents can improve stent patency by inhibiting the ingrowth of malignant biliary obstructions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This study was supported by the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (10044021) and funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea, the National Research Foundation, Ministry of Science and ICT of Korea (NRF‐2018R1C1B5045210 and NRF‐2018R1A2B6003447). And a faculty research grant from the Yonsei University College of Medicine (6‐2017‐0082 and 6‐2017‐0099).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry