Background: Several perfusion balloon catheters are under investigation for local drug delivery; however, sustained tissue drug levels are difficult to achieve with these techniques. To overcome this problem, sustained- release, biodegradable nanoparticles represent a potential alternative for prolonged local delivery. Methods and Results: A biodegradable polylactic- polyglycolic acid (PLGA) copolymer was used to formulate nanoparticles. Fluorescent-labeled nanoparticles were intraluminally administered in a single, 180-second infusion after balloon injury in the rat carotid model. Localization and retention at different time points and biocompatibility of nanoparticles were evaluated. To evaluate the potential of the system in the prevention of neointimal formation, dexamethasone was incorporated into the particles and delivered locally as above. Nanoparticles were seen in the three layers of the artery at 3 hours and 24 hours. At 3 days, they were mainly present in the adventitial layer, decreasing at 7 days, with no fluorescent activity at 14 days. The PLGA nanoparticles appeared to be fully biocompatible. In the dexamethasone nanoparticle study, a significant amount of dexamethasone was present in the treated segment for up to 14 days after a single infusion, with no plasma levels detected after the first 3 hours. There was a 31% reduction in intima-media ratio in animals treated with local dexamethasone nanoparticles compared with control. Conclusions: Nanoparticles successfully penetrated into the vessel wall and persisted for up to 14 days after a short, single intraluminal infusion. Local administration of nanoparticles with incorporated dexamethasone significantly decreased neointimal formation. This methodology appears to have important potential for clinical applications in local drug delivery.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)