Biocides are commonly used as spray-or trigger-type formulations, thus dermal and respiratory exposure to biocide aerosol is unavoidable. However, little is known about the impact of aerosolization on the local toxicity of biocides on the skin or the airway. We compared the local toxicity of biocides after direct or aerosol exposure on reconstructed human skin epidermis and upper airway models. Three biocides, 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one (BIT), 2-phenoxyethanol (PE), and 2-phenylphenol (OPP), most widely used in the market were selected. When the biocide was treated in aerosols, toxicity to the skin epidermis and upper airway tissue became significantly attenuated compared with the direct application as determined by the higher tissue viabilities. This was further confirmed in histological examination, wherein the tissue damages were less pronounced. LC-MS/MS and GC/MS analysis revealed that concentrations of biocides decreased during aerosolization. Importantly, the toxicity of biocides treated in 3 µm (median mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)) aerosols was stronger than that of 5 µm aerosol, suggesting that the aerosol particle size may affect biocide toxicity. Collectively, we demonstrated that aerosolization could affect the local toxicity of biocides on the skin epidermis and the upper airway.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through Technology Program for establishing biocide safety management Program (or Project), funded by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) (2019002490005,1485016722, 2019002490004, 1485016253 and 2020002970001) and a research fund from the R&D Institute, Biosolution Co., Ltd.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Chemical Health and Safety