Objective: To investigate the association between the intensity and cumulative dose of cigarette smoking and incidence risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a longitudinal prospective study over 12 years of follow-up. Methods: This study included 3151 men aged 40 to 69 years from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. MetS was defined as proposed by the Joint Interim Statement of the Circulation 2009 report. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incidence risk of MetS were calculated from 2 separate perspectives: (1) number of cigarettes smoked per day (intensity) and (2) total number of cigarettes smoked over a person's lifetime (cumulative dose) using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: In comparison with never smokers, the HRs (95% CIs) were 0.97 (0.78-1.21) for former smokers and 1.50 (1.07-2.01) with 0 to 9 cigarettes per day, 1.66 (1.34-2.06) with 10 to 19 cigarettes per day, and 1.75 (1.34-2.29) with ≥20 cigarettes per day for current smokers after adjusting for confounding variables. Similar positive dose-response relationships were also observed when the cumulative dose of cigarette smoking was categorized into former and current smokers, with subcategories of <20 and >20 pack-years (PYs). The HRs (95% CIs) were 0.99 (0.77-1.23) for <20 PYs and 0.99 (0.77-1.28) for ≥20 PYs for former smokers and 1.63 (1.32-2.02) for <20 PYs and 1.67 (1.30-2.14) for ≥20 PYs for current smokers after adjusting for the same covariables. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking intensity and cumulative dose were both found to be positively associated with the incidence risk of MetS in men.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank all participants and survey staff of the KoGES for their contributions to our study. The authors have no multiplicity of interest to disclose.
© 2022 AACE
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism