Continuous recording of intracellular activities in single cells is required for deciphering rare, dynamic and heterogeneous cell responses, which are missed by population or brief single-cell recording. Even if the field of intracellular recording is constantly proceeding, several technical challenges are still remained to conquer this important approach. Here, we demonstrate long-term intracellular recording by combining a vertical nanowire multi electrode array (VNMEA) with optogenetic stimulation to minimally disrupt cell survival and functions during intracellular access and measurement. We synthesized small-diameter and high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires to spontaneously penetrate into single cells, and used light to modulate the cell’s responsiveness. The light-induced intra- and extracellular activities of individual optogenetically-modified cells were measured simultaneously, and each cell showed distinctly different measurement characteristics according to the cell-electrode configuration. Intracellular recordings were achieved continuously and reliably without signal interference and attenuation over 24 hours. The integration of two controllable techniques, vertically grown nanowire electrodes and optogenetics, expands the strategies for discovering the mechanisms for crucial physiological and dynamic processes in various types of cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes