A mid-diastolic L wave has been recognized as a marker of advanced left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. However, its prognostic implication is unclear. This study assessed long-term prognosis and independent predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with a mid-diastolic L wave. A total of 144 consecutive patients (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 88 female) with a mid-diastolic L wave of ≥0.2 m/s and in sinus rhythm were identified. Patients with significant valvular heart disease, low LV ejection fraction and arrhythmias were excluded. Subjects were followed up for cardiovascular (CV) mortality and hospitalization for heart failure (HF). During follow-up for a median of 44 months (1–76), CV deaths and hospitalization for HF occurred in 41 (28%) patients. In multivariate Cox analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.11; p = 0.001), log N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)(HR 3.81; 95% CI 1.78–8.15; p = 0.001), and left atrial volume index (HR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01–1.04; p = 0.019) were independent predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with a mid-diastolic L wave. In a stepwise model, NT-proBNP showed an incremental prognostic value for prediction of adverse outcomes when added to the clinical and echocardiographic parameters (Chi square from 30.1 to 41.1, p < 0.001). Patients with a mid-diastolic L wave and clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic evidence of advanced diastolic dysfunction showed poor long-term clinical outcome.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korean government (M10642120001-06N4212-00110). None. None.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine