Purpose: We evaluated the long-term outcome of simultaneous transurethral bladder tumor and prostate resection in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder tumor and bladder outlet obstruction. Materials and Methods: Between April 1997 and April 2006, 213 patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder tumor who had a minimum followup of 24 months were included in the study, including group 1-107 with transurethral resection of bladder tumor only and group 2-106 with transurethral bladder tumor and prostate resection. Simultaneous transurethral bladder tumor and prostate resection was performed at surgeon discretion. The records were retrospectively analyzed for clinicopathological parameters, recurrence and progression rates, time to recurrence and postoperative uroflowmetry results in the 2 groups. Results: There were no significant differences in clinicopathological parameters between the 2 groups. At a mean followup of 54.3 and 50.1 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively, group 2 patients with a tumor less than 3 cm or a single tumor had a significantly lower recurrence rate than group 1 patients. None of the 31 patients with recurrence in group 2 had recurrence in the bladder neck or prostatic urethra where transurethral prostate resection had been done. There was no significant difference in the progression rate between the 2 groups. The 60-month recurrence-free probability in groups 1 and 2 was 43.4% and 52.0%, respectively. Three months after surgery the postvoid residual urine volume had significantly decreased in group 2. Conclusions: Simultaneous transurethral bladder tumor and prostate resection may help decrease bladder cancer recurrence and delay time to recurrence without the risk of cancer implantation when transurethral prostate resection is done, especially in patients with a papillary, solitary-appearing bladder lesion less than 3 cm.
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