The present study aimed to investigate treatment strategies determining additional treatment after endoscopic resection (ER) of rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET)s and long-term outcomes of endoscopically resected rectal NETs. We analyzed a total of 322 patients medical records of patients who underwent ER for rectal NETs. Rectal NETs initially resected as polyps and treated with conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) were observed more frequently in the non-curative group (P = 0.041 and P = 0.012, respectively). After ER, only 44 of the 142 patients (31.0%) who did not meet the criteria for curative resection received additional salvage treatment. In multivariate analysis, lesions diagnosed via biopsies (OR, 0.096; P = 0.002) or suspected as NETs initially (OR, 0.04; P = 0.001) were less likely to undergo additional treatment. Positive lymphovascular invasion (OR 61.971; P < 0.001), positive (OR 75.993; P < 0.001), or indeterminate (OR 13.203; P = 0.001) resection margins were more likely to undergo additional treatment. Although lymph node metastasis was found in 6 patients, none experienced local or metastatic tumor recurrence during the median follow-up of 40.49 months. Long-term outcomes after ER for rectal NETs were excellent. The prognosis showed favorable outcomes regardless of whether patients receive additional salvage treatments.
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