Long-term data on HLA-identical renal transplants are scarce, and the advantages of using cyclosporine (CsA) over azathioprine (AZA) have yet to be elucidated. In 68 recipients from HLA-identical donors (37 under AZA-steroids and 31 under CsA-steroids), we estimated the graft and patient survival to posttransplant 120 months, and compared the results between patients on different protocols. Episodes of rejection, causes of graft loss or patient death, and long-term complications were also compared retrospectively. The 10-year patient/graft survivals were comparable: 82.7/67.6% for the AZA and 78.4/63.5% for the CsA patients. The incidence of acute rejection during the first year after transplant was also comparable. We lost 25 grafts. The major causes of graft loss were patient death (7/13 in AZA and 5/12 in CsA patients) and chronic rejection (3/13 in AZA and 3/12 in CsA patients). Four grafts were lost due to poor compliance. We lost 12 patients due mostly to cerebrovascular disease and infections. There was no difference in the prevalence of complications between patients. In conclusion, the long-term outcome was excellent in this subgroup of transplant patients. We could not find any advantages of using CsA over AZA in these patients after a long-term follow-up. To achieve better results, continued attention should be paid to the prevention of poor compliance and complications.
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