Long-Term Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of Kindergarten Acadience Reading with English Learners

Lindsey N. Landry, Milena Keller-Margulis, Michael Matta, Hanjoe Kim, Jorge E. Gonzalez, G. Thomas Schanding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Acadience Reading (AR) is a screener for early detection of reading problems in elementary students. Limited research exists, however, on its technical adequacy for evaluation of English Learners (ELs). In this study, we tested the long-term predictive validity and diagnostic accuracies of AR and examined the differences between native English-speaking and EL students. A sample of 305 students (94 ELs, 31% of the sample) completed AR at three time points in kindergarten and the statewide reading test in third grade. Hierarchical regression models confirmed good long-term validity for AR with end of the school year scores outperforming the other two time-points and EL status along with ethnic background not playing a significant role. Findings also revealed that AR at the end of the school year provided moderate long-term diagnostic accuracy for students well below benchmark. Implications for research and practice as well as limitations of the study are discussed. Impact Statement 1.Acadience Reading data collected at the end of kindergarten offered the best long-term predictive validity for third grade reading performance compared to other time points. 2.EL status did not play a significant role in the model of kindergarten Acadience Reading predicting performance on a high-stakes reading test in third grade. 3.Diagnostic accuracy and likelihood ratio results indicate the value of Acadience Reading scores at the end of kindergarten for indicating students who are likely to have reading difficulty in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)454-467
Number of pages14
JournalSchool Psychology Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 National Association of School Psychologists.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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