Diurnal variations in blood pressure (BP) loss are closely associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular events. The quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC) correlates with the atherosclerotic plaque burden, and an increased quantity indicates a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular events. This study investigated the nighttime diurnal variation in BP loss associated with CAC in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Of the 1958 participants, we enrolled 722 participants with CKD without a history of acute coronary syndrome or symptomatic coronary artery disease. CAC was measured with computed tomography. BP was measured using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Central BP was measured using a SphygmoCor waveform analysis system. Participants with CAC had significantly higher 24-hour systolic, daytime systolic, and nighttime systolic ambulatory BP and central systolic BP. The percentage of participants with dipping loss was significantly higher among those with CAC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dipping loss and dipping ratio were independently associated with CAC after adjusting for traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors and other BP parameters, including measurements of office-measured BP and central BP. The dipping status improved risk prediction for CAC after considering traditional risk factors and office-measured BP, using the net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement. Nighttime loss of diurnal variation in BP is an independent risk factor for CAC in CKD patients.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute, funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number HI13C0715).
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