We report a low-power, bio-inspired mixed-signal 2-D optic flow sensor to realize artificial compound eyes, which can provide a wide field of view (FoV) sensing capability for autonomous navigation of micro-Air-vehicles (MAVs). Inspired by insect vision, a 2-D time-stamp algorithm has been developed to scale the number of deployable sensors at low power. The fabricated sensor estimates 16-b 2-D optic flows of maximum 1.96 rad/s with FoV of 60° from the integrated mixed-signal algorithm core, which consumes only 243.3 pJ/pixel ∼ 30 μ at 120 fps. In addition, the peripheral circuits for modular design have been integrated on chip to provide optic flow data compression, wide-field integration (WFI), and serial peripheral interface (SPI). More than 25 sensors can be connected in a single SPI bus and transmit the full resolution optic flows. The fabricated prototype sensor supports full resolution 2-D optic flows from an array of 64×64 pixels at 120 fps through a 3 MB/s SPI bus (4 wires total).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received July 26, 2019; accepted August 18, 2019. Date of publication August 30, 2019; date of current version November 26, 2019. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under Contract W911NF and in part by the Microelectronics Center of Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA). The associate editor coordinating the review of this article and approving it for publication was Dr. Cheng-Ta Chiang. (Corresponding authors: Sung-Yun Park; Euisik Yoon.) S. Park, K. Lee, and H. Song are with the Center for Wireless Integrated MicroSensing and Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA, and also with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering