We report a unique approach for the patterned growth of single-crystalline tungsten oxide (WOx) nanowires based on localized stress-induction. Ions implanted into the desired growth area of WOx thin films lead to a local increase in the compressive stress, leading to the growth of nanowire at lower temperatures (600 °C vs. 750-900 °C) than for equivalent non-implanted samples. Nanowires were successfully grown on the microscale patterns using wafer-level ion implantation and on the nanometer scale patterns using a focused ion beam (FIB). Experimental results show that nanowire growth is influenced by a number of factors including the dose of the implanted ions and their atomic radius. The implanted-ion-assisted, stress-induced method proposed here for the patterned growth of WO x nanowires is simpler than alternative approaches and enhances the compatibility of the process by reducing the growth temperature.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
H.N. and Y.E. contributed equally to this work. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1A2043661). This work was also supported by the Smart IT Convergence System Research Center funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology as a “Global Frontier Project” (2012M3A6A6054201) and Korea Ministry of Environment as “The Converging Technology Program”. The authors thank Mr. Kisik Koh for the help in operating FIB.
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