Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells by acting as signaling molecules for inducing proliferation. ROS are known to activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which causes the activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. The Ras-dependent pathway promotes the activation of nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB), a transcriptional modulator of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) that induces cell proliferation. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant carotenoid and is responsible for the red color of fruits and vegetables. This study aims to investigate whether lycopene inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer AGS cells by suppressing the EGFR/Ras/MAPK and NF-ĸB-COX-2 signaling axis. Lycopene decreased cell viability and increased apoptotic indices (DNA fragmentation, apoptosis inducing factor, cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). Lycopene reduced the level of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS and decreased the activation of the ROS-mediated EGFR/Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK pathways, thus leading to attenuation of the DNA-binding activity of NF-ĸB p50/p50 and the level of COX-2 gene expression. These results show that lycopene-induced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation occur via inhibition of ROS-activated EGFR/Ras/ERK and p38 MAPK pathways and NF-ĸB-mediated COX-2 gene expression in AGS cells. In conclusion, consumption of lycopene-enriched foods could decrease the incidence of gastric cancer.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, The Republic of Korea.
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics