House dust mites (HDM) are critical factors in airway inflammation. They activate respiratory epithelial cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). ROS induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in respiratory epithelial cells. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant nutrient with anti-inflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate whether HDM induce intracellular and mitochondrial ROS production, TLR4 activation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-6 and IL-8) in respiratory epithelial A549 cells. Additionally, we examined whether lycopene inhibits HDM-induced alterations in A549 cells. The treatment of A549 cells with HDM activated TLR4, induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8, and increased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. TAK242, a TLR4 inhibitor, suppressed both HDM-induced ROS production and cytokine expression. Furthermore, lycopene inhibited the HDM-induced TLR4 activation and cytokine expression, along with reducing the intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels in HDM-treated cells. These results collectively indicated that the HDM induced TLR4 activation and increased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, thus resulting in the induction of cytokine expression in respiratory epithelial cells. The antioxidant lycopene could inhibit HDM-induced cytokine expression, possibly by suppressing TLR4 activation and reducing the intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels in respiratory epithelial cells.
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Jun 1|
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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry